keywords: Bioavailability, dumpsites, heavy metals, mobility, sequential extraction, soil
This research was carried out to determine the chemical form of metals and to evaluate their mobility and bioavailability in soils near metal dumpsites in Zaria, Nigeria. Sequential extraction was used to fractionate Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Co and Pb from soil collected from three selected metal dumpsites into six operationally defined groups: water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate, Fe -Mn oxide, organic, and residual. The results indicated that the concentrations of the studied metals in the soils from experimental sites were higher than the corresponding values from the control site, and higher than the recommended limits given by FAO/WHO. The bioavailability of the metals at the three different study areas was in the order: Dambo:- 40% Cd, 39% Co, 91% Cu, 66% Ni, 42% Pb and 73% Zn.; Agoro:- 39% Cd, 48% Co, 74% Cu, 59% Ni, 41% Pb and 60% Zn and Yankarfe:- Cu > Ni > Zn > Pb > Cd >Co. The result of this study indicated that the bioavailabilities of the studied metals at the test sites were higher than those at the control site except that of Co. Heavy metals in the soil from anthropogenic sources tend to be more mobile, hence bioavailable than pedogenic or lithogenic ones.
Achi MM, Uzairu A, Gimba CE & Okunola OJ 2011. Chemical fractionation of heavy metals in soils around the vicinity of automobile mechanic workshops in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. J. Environ. Chem. and Ecotoxico., 3(7): 184 – 194. Agbenin JO 1995. Laboratory manual for soil and plant analysis: selected methods and data analysis. ABU, Zaria, Nigeria. Allen HE, Hall RH & Brisbin TD 2002. Metal speciation effects on aquatic toxicity. Envt. Sci. & Tech., 14: 441–443. Ali MA & Dzombak DA 1996. Effects of simple organic acids on sorption of Cu2+ and Ca2+ on goethite. Geochem. Cosm. Acta, 60(2): 291 -304. Ashraf MA, Maah MJ & Yusoff I 2012. Heavy metals accumulation in plants growing in ex tin mining catchment. Int. J. Environ. Sci. & Tech., 8(2): 401–416. Alloway BJ 1995. Heavy Metals in Soils. John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. Akpoveta OV, Osakwe SA, Okoh BE & Otuya BO 2010. Physicochemical characteristics and levels of some heavy metals in soils around metal scrap dumps in some parts of Delta State, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. & Environ. Mgt., 14(4): 57 – 60. Borgese L, Federici S, Zacco A, Gianoncelli A, Rizzo L, Smith DR, Donna F, Lucchini R, Depero LE & Bontempi E 2013. Metal fractionation in soils and assessment of enviromental contamination in the Vallecamonica, Italy. Environ Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 20(7): 5067–5075. Chen KF, Yeh TY & Lin CF 2012. Phytoextraction of Cu, Zn and Pb enhanced by chelators with vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides): Hydroponic and pot experiments. Int. Scholarly Res. Network Ecology, 2012, 12pgs. Chen W, Zhibao D, Zhenshan L & Zaotao Y 1996. Wind tunnel test of the influence of moisture content on the rodibility of loessial sandy loam soils by wind. J. Arid Environ., 34(2): 391- 402. Donald SR 2000. Recommended Methods for Determining Soil Cation Exchange Capacity. Technical report NEC-67, Vermont, USA. Fijałkowski K, Kacprzak M, Grobelak A & Placek A 2012. The influence of selected soil parameters on the mobility of heavy metals in soils. Inżynieria i Ochrona Środowiska, 15(1): 81 – 92. Gray CW, Mclaren RG, Günther D & Sinaj S 2004. An assessment of cadmium availability in cadmium contaminated soils using kinetic isotope exchange. Soil Sci. Society of Am. J., 68: 1210- 1217. Kabala C & Singh BR 2001. Fractionation and mobility of copper, lead and zinc in soil profiles in the vicinity of a copper smelter. J. Environ. Quality, 30: 485-492. Kabata-Pendias A & Pendias H 2001. Trace Elements in the Soil and Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton. Kaasalainen M & Yli-Halla M 2003. Use of sequential extraction to assess metal partitioning in soils. Environmental Pollution, 126(2): 225–233. Kos B, Greman H & Lestan D 2003. Phytoextraction of lead, zinc and cadmium from soil by selected plants. Plant Soil Environment, 49(12), 548 – 553. Kumar B, Kumar S, Mishra M, Singh SK, Prakash D, Sharma CS & Mukherjee DP 2011. Geochemical fractionation of some heavy metals in soils in the vicinity of Sukinda Mining Area, Orissa. Advances in Appl. Sci. Res., 2(5): 263 – 272. Kuo S, Heilman PE & Baker AS 1983. Distribution and forms of copper, zinc, cadmium, iron and manganese in soils near a copper smelter. Soil Sci., 135(2): 101–109. Lasat MM 2000. Phytoextraction of metals from contaminated soil: A review of plant/soil/metal interaction and assessment of pertinent agronomic issues. J. Hazardous Substance Res., 2(5): 1–25. Li X & Thornton I 2001. Chemical partitioning of trace and major elements in soils contaminated by mining and smelting activities. Applied Geochem., 16: 1693 – 1706. Ma QL & Rao GN 1997. Chemical fractionation of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc in contaminated soils. J. Environ. Quality, 26: 259–264. Masa J, Helena G, Dominic V, Metka S & Domen L 2013. Fractionation of metal contaminated garden soil after remediation. Environ. Pollution, 174(2013): 63 – 70. Nagajyoti PC, Lee KD & Sreekanth TVM 2010. Heavy metals, occurrence and toxicity for plants: A review. Environmental Chemical Letter, 8: 199 – 216. Nuonom L, Yemefack M, Techienkwa M & Njongang R 2000. Impact of natural fallow durationon Cameron. Nig. J. Soil Res., 3: 52-57. Ogunfowokan AO, Oyekunle JAO, Olutona GO, Atoyebi AO & Lawal A 2013. Speciation study of heavy metals in water and sediments from Asunle River of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Protection. 3(3): 6 - 16. Prasad MNV 2003. Phytoremediation of metal-polluted ecosystems: Hype for commercialization. Russian J. Plant Physiol., 50(5): 686-700. Raymond AW & Felix EO 2011. Heavy metals in contaminated soils. A review of sources, Chemistry, risk and best available strategies for remediation. Ecology, 1– 2. Salawu K, Owolarafe TA, Barau MM, Lawal TA, Abubakar MA, Fadilu M & Nwachukwu FC 2014. Determination of selected heavy metals in seasonal River in Maru Town, Zamfara State, Nigeria. J. Envt. & Earth Sci., 4(21): 1- 5. Salomons W 1995. Environmental impact of metals derived from mining activities: Processes, predictions, prevention. J. Geochem. Exploration, 52: 5-23. Singh V 1997. Integrating Environment and economy in vegetable oil refineries. In: Yap NT & Awasthi SK. Waste management for sustainable development in India, pp. 230-233. Sharu MB, Yakubu M, Noma SS & Tsafe AI 2013. Characterization and classification of soils on agrcultural landscape in Dingyadi District, Sokoto State Nigeria. Nig. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 21(2): 137 – 147. Shehu BM, Jibrin JM & Samndi AM 2015. Fertility status of selected soils in the Sudan Savanna Bioma of Northern Nigeria. Int. J. Soil Sci., 10: 74 – 83. Shuman LM 1991. Chemical forms of micronutrients in soils. 2nd ed. Medison. West India, pp. 113-144. Sposito G & Page AL 1984. Cycling of metal ions in the soil environment. In: Metal Ions in Biological Systems, H. Sigel, Ed., Vol. 18 of Circulation of Metals in the Environment, pp. 287–332, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, USA. Tessier A, Campbell PGC & Blsson M 1979. Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Analytical Chemistry, 52(1): 45–53. Venkateswaran P, Vellaichamy S & Palanivelu K 2007. Speciation of heavy metals in electroplating industry sludge and wastewater residue using inductively coupled plasma. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 4(4): 497-504. Yang S, Zhou D, Yu H, Wei R & Pan B 2013. Distribution and speciation of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, andPb) in agricultural and non-agricultural soils near a stream upriver from the Pearl River, China. Environmental Pollution, 177: 64-70. Yen TY, Lin CF, Chuang CC & Pan CT 2012. The effect of varying soil organic levels on phytoextraction of Cu and Zn uptake, enhanced by chelator EDTA, DTPA, EDDS and Citric acid in Sunflower, Chinese cabbage Cattail and Reed. J. Environ. & Analy. Toxico., 2(5): 142 – 153.