keywords: Alchornea cordifolia, antimicrobial, phytochemistry, plant extract, stomach disorders
Alchornea cordifolia (Schum. & Thonn.) Muel. Arg. is used by traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria to treat stomach disorders, diarrhoea, skin infections (wound healing), ear infections, and eye defects. To evaluate these claims, 100 mg/ml concentration of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves, stem and male inflorescence of A. cordifolia were screened for antimicrobial properties against two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) and two fungi (Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride). The Disc Assay Method was used for antifungal screening while Agar Well Method was used for antibacterial screening. Each plant part was subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening using standard methods. The plant parts showed higher inhibitory activities against the test bacteria than the fungi. Their ethanolic extracts were more potent than their aqueous extracts. T. viride was the most resistant organism whereby only the ethanolic extracts showed inhibitory effect. Leaf ethanolic extract showed the highest inhibitory activity against all tested pathogens; its inhibitory activity against E. coli (19.01 ± 0.08 mm) was higher than the control Tetracycline (18.92 ± 0.02 mm). Phytochemical screening revealed that all three plant parts have alkaloids, tannins, anthraquinones, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, and reducing sugars. Pentose sugars were absent in all plant parts while steroids were present only in the leaves. Therefore, the ethanolic extracts of all the plant parts should be subjected to further investigation and isolation of their antimicrobial compounds.
Acharya D & Shrivastava A 2008. Indigenous herbal medicines: Tribal formulations and traditional herbal practices, Aavishkar Publishers Distributor, India, pp. 1 – 440. Adeniyi TA, Adeonipekun PA & Omotayo EA 2014a. Investigating the phytochemicals and antimicrobial properties of three sedge (Cyperaceae) species. Not. Sci. Biol., 6(3): 276 – 281. Adeniyi TA, Adeonipekun PA, Olowokudejo JD & Akande IS 2014b. Airborne pollen records of Shomolu Local Government Area in Lagos State. Not. Sci. Biol., 6(4): 428 – 432. Adeonipekun PA, Adeniyi TA & Aminu SO 2014. Investigating the phytochemicals and antimicrobial activities of shoot and root of Pycreus smithianus (Ridl.) C. B. Clarke (Family Cyperaceae). J. Bot., http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/761613. Adeonipekun PA, Adeniyi TA & Eden D 2016a. Antimicrobial properties and melissopalynology, proximate and elemental analyses of honey samples from three different ecozones in Nigeria. Not. Sci. Biol., 8(3): 326 – 333. Adeonipekun PA, Agbalaya AE & Adeniyi TA 2016b. Aeropalynology of Ayetoro-Itele, Ota Southwest Nigeria: A preliminary study. In: Human Palaeoecology in Africa: Essays in Honour of M. Adebisi Sowunmi. Oyelaran PA, Alabi RA & Adeonipekun PA (eds.). University of Ibadan Press, Nigeria, pp. 130 – 153. Adewunmi C, Agbedahunsi J, Adebayo A, Aladesanmi A, Murphy N & Wando J 2001. Ethnoveterinary medicine: Screening of Nigerian medicnal plants for trypanocidal properties. J. Ethnopharmacol., 77: 19-24. Aniszewski T 2007. Alkaloids-secrets of life. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 1 – 246. Agyare C, Owusu-Anah A, Ossei P, Apenteng J & Boakye Y 2014. Wound healing and anti-infective properties of Myrianthus arboreus and Alchornea cordifolia. Medicinal Chem., 4(7): 533 – 539. Ayisi N & Nyadedzor C 2003. Comparative in vitro effects of AZT and extracts of Ocimum gratissimum, Ficus polita, Clausena anisate, Alchornea cordifolia, and Elaeophorbia drupifera against HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. Antiviral Res., 58: 25-32. Ayodele AE & Yang Y 2012. Diversity and Distribution of Vascular Plants in Nigeria. Qingdao Publishing House, China, pp. 1 – 350. Banzouzi J, Prado R, Menan H, Valentin A, Ronmesten C, Mallie M, Pelissier Y & Blanche Y 2002. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts of Alchornea cordifolia and identification of an active constituent: ellagic acid. J. Ethnopharmacol., 81: 399-401. Burkill H 1997. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Volume 2, Families E – I. Royal Botanical Garden, Kew, United Kingdom, pp. 1 – 960. Chouaki T,Lavarde V, Lachaud L, Raccurt C & Hennequin C. 2002. Invasive infections due to Trichoderma species: Report of 2 cases, findings of in vitro susceptibility testing, and review of the literature. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 35: 1360-1367. De Boer H, Kool A, Broberg A, Mziray W, Hedberg I & Levenfors J 2005. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of some herbal remedies from Tanzania. J. Ethnopharmacol., 96: 461 – 469. Ebi GC 2001. Antimicrobial activities of Alchornea cordifolia. Fitoterapia, 72: 69 – 72. Ganesan S, Suresh N & Kesaven L 2004. Ethnomedicinal survey of Lower Palani Hills of Tamilnadu. Indian J. Trad. Know., 3(3): 299 – 304. Gatsing D, Moudji T, Kuiate J, Nji-Nkah B & Fodouop C 2008. In vitro antibacterial activity of Alchornea cordifolia bank extract against Salmonella species causing typhoid fevers. Ethiopian Pharmacol. J. 26: 83 – 94. Gatsing D, Nkeugouapi C, Nji-Nkah B, Kuiate J & Tchouanguep F 2010. Antibacterial activity, bioavailability and acute toxicity evaluation of the leaf extract of Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae). Int. J. Pharmacol., 1: 1-10. Harbone J 1998. Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 1 – 302. Ige EO 2011. Preliminary investigation on the ethnomedicinal plants of Akoko Division, southwest Nigeria. Global J. Health Sci., 3(2): 85-86. Khan A, Karuppayil S, Manoharachary C, Kunwar I & Waghray S 2009. Isolation, identification and testing for allergenicity of fungi from air-conditioned indoor environments. Aerobiologia 25(2): 119 – 123. Nwachukwu E & Uzoeto HO 2010. Antimicrobial activities of leaf of Vitex doniana and Cajanus cajan on some bacteria. Researcher, 2(3): 37–47. Okeke I, Ogundaini A, Ogunbamila F & Lamikanra A 1999. Antimicrobial spectrum of Alchornea cordifolia leaf extract. Phytother. Res., 13: 67 – 69. Olaleye MT, Adegboye OO & Akindahunsi AA 2006. Alchornea cordifolia extract protects Wistar albino rats against acetaminophen-induced liver damage. Afr. J. Biotech., 5: 2439 – 2445. Olaleye MT, Kolawole AO & Ajele JO 2007. Antioxidant properties and glutathione S-transferase inhibitory activity of Alchornea cordifolia leaf extract in acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Iran J. Pharmacol. Res., 6: 63 – 66. Osadebe PO & Okoye FB 2003. Anti-inflammatory effects of crude extracts and fractions of Alchornea cordifolia leaves. J. Ethnopharmacol., 89: 19 – 24. Peni IJ, Elinge CM & Yusuf H 2010. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Parinari curatellifolia stem extract. J. Med. Plants Res., 4(20): 2099 – 2102. Yukihiro K, Makoto I, Jiro Y, Naoki K, Naoto U, Isao S, Nagatoshi I & Kazuhisa O 2002. Pharmacokinetic study of allixin, a phytoalexin produced by garlic. Chem. Pharm., 50: 354 – 363.