(A Peer Review Journal)
e–ISSN: 2408–5162; p–ISSN: 2048–5170


Pages: 11-17
Adesola Olayinka Osibona* and Abiola Fadilat Gafar

keywords: Clariasgariepinus, Lophiraalata, microorganisms, nutritional, PAHs, smoked


The study investigated the effects of smoking Clariasgariepinus with Lophiraalata wood on the nutritional qualities, chemical composition and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon levels (PAHs) when stored for 28 days. For organoleptic qualities, only the taste values of the salted samples scored significantly higher (p<0.05) than the unsalted sample till day 14. All the proximate composition except fibre and carbohydrate of the smoked samples were significantly different from the fresh sample. Storage resulted in no significant change in all the proximate composition of the smoked samples except carbohydrate which increased significantly with storage. Mineral composition varied significantly between fresh and smoked samples except calcium. Storage did not significantly affect the concentrations of the minerals except sodium which decreased. There were differences in the values of concentrations of sodium, potassium and calcium in the salted and unsalted samples during storage. Mould was observed on day 14 in salted and unsalted samples with no significant difference (p>0.05). Microbial infestation occurred from first week in both samples and it increased significantly from the 21st day of storage. No insect infestation was observed. The microorganisms detected included Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Saccharomyces spp., Penicillium spp., Staphylococci aureus, Staphylococci lentus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Kocuriarosea. Forty three PAHs were detected in salted samples and 23 in unsalted samples, only in salted samples was Anthracene, a carcinogenic PAH, detected at low level of 0.57 μg kg-1 which poses no health risk to consumers. Thus, this study provided a possible application of L. alata as safe wood for smoking fish.


Abidemi-Iromini OA, Olawusi-Peters OO, Fadeyi A & Bello-Olusoji OA 2011. Smoking impact on the microbial load of Clarias gariepinus. J. Envt. & Mgt., 4(3): 38-41. Abolagba OJ, Igene JO & Oronsanye JAO 2005. Investigations on the Fishing practices in Ekenwan Area of Ovia north east local government area of Edo state. Nig. J. Agric., Forestry & Fisheries., 6(1): 35-40. Abolagba OJ & Melle OO 2008. Chemical composition and keeping qualities of a scaly fish tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus smoked with two energy sources. Afr. J. General Agric., 4(2): 113-117. Abolagba OJ & Osifo SJ 2004. The effect of smoking on the chemical composition and keeping qualities of catfish Heterobran chusbidorsalis using two energy sources. J. Agric., Forestry & Fisheries (JAFF)., 5(1): 27-30. Abolagba OJ, Okonji VA & Enobakhare DA 1996. Salting of fish as a means of reducing damage by Dermestes maculates (Coleoptera) Nig. J. Entomol., 13: 81-86. Adebayo-Tayo BC, Onilude AA, & Patrick UG 2008. Mycoflora of smoke-dried fishes sold in Uyo, Eastern Nigeria. World J. Agric. Sci., 4: 346-350. Adelaja OA, Olaoye OJ, Ikenweiwe NB & Ashley-Dejo SS 2013. Comparison of microbial load associated with smoked fish (Chrysichtysnigrodigitatus) from OyanLake and Ogun Waterside in Ogun State, Nigeria. Global J. Inc. Sci. Fronteir Res. Agric. & Veterinary., 13(8): 35-39. Adeleye OA 1992. Conservation needs of fisheries resources and reorientation for sustainable captive and culture practices. Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference Fisheries Society of Nigeria. pp: 230-234. Adewumi AA, Adewole HA & Olaleye VF. 2014. Proximate and elemental composition of the fillets of some fish species in Osinmo Reservoir, Nigeria. Agric. & Bio. J. North Am., 5(3): 109-117. AOAC 2005. Official Methods of Analysis (18th Edn.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists International, Maryland, USA. Bilgin S, Unlusayin M, Izci L & Gunlu A 2008. The determination of the shelf life and some nutritional components of gilthead seabream (Sparusaurata L., 1758) after cold and hot smoking. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 32(1): 49-56. Bolaji BO 2005. Performance evaluation of a simple solar dryer for food preservation. Book of Proceedings of 6th Annual Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria, pp: 8-13. Clucas J & Ward AR 1996. Postharvest Fisheries Development: A guide to handling, preservation and quality. National Resource Institute, Central Avenue Chathan, Maritime UK, p. 665. Daramola JA, Fasakin EA & Adeparusi EO 2007. Changes in physicochemical and sensory characteristics of smoke- dried fish species stored at ambient temperature. Afri. J. Food Agric. Nutr. & Devt., 7(6): 1-16. Effiong BN & Fakunle JO 2011. Proximate and mineral composition of some commercially important fishes in Lake Kainji, Nigeria. J. Basic Appl., Sci., Res., 1(12): 2497-2500. Eyo AA 2001. Fish Processing Technology in the Tropics. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR), New Bussa, Nigeria, pp: 10-170. FAO 2002. Yearbook Fishery Statistics. Food and Agric. Organization 92/2. FAO, Rome, p. 16. www.fao.org/fi/search/yearbooks.html Garcia-Falcon MS & Simal-Gandara J 2005. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoke from different woods and their transfer during traditional smoking into chorizo sausages with collagen and tripe casings. Food Additives Contaminants., 22(1): 1-8. Ghazala S 1994. New packaging technology for seafood preservation, shelf-life extension and pathogen control. In:Fisheries Processing Biotechnological Applications (Ed. Martins, AM). Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 83-110. Gokoglu N, Yerlikaya P & Cengiz E 2004. Effects of Cooking Methods on the Proximate Composition and Mineral Contents of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Food Chem., 84: 19-22. Harrigan WF & McCance MF 1976. Laboratory Methods in Food and Dairy Microbiology, 2nd Edn. London: Academic Press. Haruna AB 2003. Aquaculture In The Tropics: Theory And Practice. Zaria: Al-Hassana Publishers, 432pp. Kabahenda MK, Omony P & Hüsken SMC 2009. Post-harvest handling of low value fish products and threats to nutritional quality: A review of practices in the Lake Victoria region. Fisheries and HIV/AIDS in Africa: Investing in Sustainable Solutions. World Fish Center, Project Report, 1975. 15. Ken F 2014. Lophiraalata- Useful Tropical Plants Database. Khan MAA & Khan YSA 2001. Insect infestation and preventive measures in dry fish storage of Chittagong, Bangladesh. International Journal of Biological Sciences. 1: 963-965. Mbunda AE 2012. The quality change in smoked and dried fresh water sardine (Rastrineobolaargentea) and marine pelagic fish (capelin) as influenced by processing methods. [Final project]. http://www.unuftp.is/static/fellows/document/arnold12prf.pdf