keywords: Antibacterial, aqueous extracts, infections, maximum inhibitory
Azadirachta indica commonly known as neem is a medicinal plant belonging to the family Meliaceae. The research was carried out to determine the antimicrobial effects of aqueous extracts of the leaves of Azadirachta indica using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of extracts as indices. Clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms. For the aqueous extract of the leaves, a minimum concentration of 125 mg/ml was found to inhibit the growth of K. pneumoniae and S. aureus in nutrient broth. MBC for K. pneumoniae and S. aureus are 250 and 250 mg/ml, respectively. The aqueous extracts of A. indica showed relatively strong antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of bacterial isolates used which therefore indicates that the plant has antibacterial properties. It may be attributed to the high active compounds from the sample unlike the low volatility of some extracts such as ethanol. It is recommended that management studies should be carried out on the plant to explore its usage as a possibility of treatment for pathogenic bacterial infections.
EI- Mahmood OB, Ogbonna & Raji M 2010. The antibacterial activity of Azadirachta indica (Neem) associated with eye and ear infections. J. Medicinal Plant Res., 4(14): 1414-1421. AbuSyedM, Mosaddek M, Mamun M & Rashid UR 2008. A comparative study of Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract of Neem leaf and dexamethasone. Bangladesh J. Pharmaco, l3: 44-47. Almas K & Ansallafi TR 1995. The natural toothbrush. World health Forum, 16: 206-210. Aslam F, Khalil U, Asghar M & Sarwar M 2009. Antibacterial activity of various phytoconstituents of Neem. Pak. J. Agri. Sci., 46(3): 209-213. Badam L, Joshi SP & Bedeker SS 1999. In vitro antiviral activity of neem (Azadirachtaindica) leaf extract against group B coxasackie viruses. J. Communicable Disease, 31(2): 79 – 84. Bandyopadhyay U, Biswas K & Sengupta A 2004. Clinical studies on the effect of neem(Azadirachtaindica) bark extract on gastric secretion of gastroduodenal ulcer. Life Science, 75: 2867-78. Becker K, Friedrich AW, Lubritz G, Weilert M, Peters G & Von Eiff C 2003. Prevalence of genes encoding pyrogenic toxin superantigens and exfoliative toxins among strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from blood and nasal specimen. Biswas Kausik, Chattopadhyay Ishita, Banerjee K & Ranajit Bandyopadhyay 2002. Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachtaindica). Current Science, 82: 1336-1345. Chattopadhyay I, Banerjee RK & Bandyopadhyay U 2005. Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachtaindica).Curr Sci., 82: 1336- 45. Cimolai N 2008. MRSA and the environment: implications for comprehensive control measures. Uur. J. Clin. Microbial. Infect. Dis., 27(7): 481-93. Cole AM, Tahk S, Oren A, Yoshioka D, Kim Y, Park A & Ganz T 2001. Determinants of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage. Clin Diangn Lab Immunol, 8(6): 1064 – 1069. Cook H, Furuya E, Larson E, Vasquez G & Lowy F 2007. Heterosexual transmission of community-associatedmethillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis., 44(3): 410 – 416. Debola A 2002. Manual for Phytochemical Screening Plants.Ethiopia Health and Nutrition Research Institution, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp. 35-47. Deepak O, Mamatha S & Damodar C 2013. Antimicrobial activity of Azadirachtaindica (Neem) leaf, bark and seed extracts. Int. J. Res. Phytochem. Pharmacol., 3(1): 1-4. Dinges MM, Orwin PM & Schlievert PM 2000. Exotoxins of Satphylococcus aureus. Clin Microbial. Rev., 13(1): 16-34. Ebi GC 2001. Antibacterial activity of Alcohonea cordifolia stem Bark. Fitoterap., 72(1): 69-72. Ezeokeke EE, Ene AC & Igwe CU 2015. In vivo antiplasmodial effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Alchornea cordifolia. Biochem. Analyt. Biochem., 4: 4. Faiza Aslam, Khalil U, Rehman, Mohammad Asghar & Muhammed Sarwar 2009. Antibacterial activity of various Phytoconstituents of Neem. Pak. J.Agri. Sci., 46(3): 456-463. Garg HS, Talwar GP, Upadhyay SN, Mittal A & Kapoor S 1993. Identification and characterization of the immunodulatory fraction from neem seed extract responsible for long-term antifertility activity after intrauterine administration. Proceedings of the World Neem Conference, Bangalore, India; Feb. 24 – 28, 1993. Gillet Y, Issartel B & Vanhems P 2002. Association between Staphylococcus aureusstrais carrying gene for Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and highly lethal necrotizing pneumonia in young immunocompetent patients. Lancet., 359(9038): 753 – 759. Hafiza RE 2000. Peptides antibiotics. Lancet, 349: 418 – 422. Hassan Amer, Wafaa A, Helmy H & Taie AA 2010. In-vitro Antitumour activities of seeds and leaves Neem (Azadirachtaindica) extracts. Int. J. Academic Res., 2(2): 165-171. Hawaz S, Deti H & Suleman S 2012. In-vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of Clematis species indigenous to Ethiopia. Ind. J. Pharmaceut. Sci., 74(1): 29-35. Heleno SA, Barros L, Sousa MJ, Martins A, Santos- Buelga C & Ferreira ICFR 2011. Targeted metabolites analysis in wild Boletus species. LWT Food Sci. and Techn., 44: 1343–1348. Iwase T, Uchara Y, Shinji H, Tajima A, Seo H, Takada K, Agata T & Mizunoe Y 2010. Staphylococcus epidermidis Esp. inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and nasal colonization. Nature, 465(7296): 346-349. Jarraud S, Peyrat MA & Lim A 2000. Egc, a highly prevalent operon of enterotoxin gene, forms a putative nursery of superantigens in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Immunol., 166(1): 669-677. Kluytmans J, VanBelkum A & Verbrugh H 1997. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology, underlying mechanisms, and associated risks. Clin. Microbial. Rev., 10(3): 505-520. Kuete V, Ango PY, Fotso GW, Kapche GD, Dzoyem JP, Wouking AG, Ngadjui BT & Abegaz BM 2011. Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract and compounds from Artocarpuscommunis (Moraceae). BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 25: 11–42. Kuete V, Nana F, Ngameni B, Mbaveng AT, Keumedjio F & Ngadjui BT 2009. Antimicrobial activity of the crude extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Ficusovata (Moraceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 124: 556–561. EI-Mahmood, Ogbonna M & Raji M 2010. Theantibacterial activity of Azadirachtaindica (Neem) associated with eye and ear infections. J. Medicinal Plant Res., 4(14): 1414-1421. Mandell.Enterobacteriaceae.Mandell, Douglas & Bennets 2009. Principles and Practice of infectious Diseases, 7th ed. Churchill Livingstone, An Imprint of Elsevier. Neely AN & Maley MP 2000. Survival of enterococci and staphylococci on hospital fabrics and plastics J. Clin. Microbial., 38(2): 724-726. Nordmann P, Cuzon G & Naas T 2009. The real threat of klebsiell apneumoniae carbapenemase-producing bacteria. Lancet Infected Diseases, 9(4): 228-236. Nwanjo HU (2005). Efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalinaon plasma lipoprotein and oxidative status in diabetic rat models. Nig. J. Physiological Sci., 20(1-2): 30-42. Nweze EI, Okafor JI & Njoku O 2004. Antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of Frema guineensis (Schum and Thorn) and moringa Lucida Benth used in Nigerian Herbal medicinal practices. J. Biol. Res. Biotech., 2(1): 39-46. Ogston A 1984. On abscesses. Classics in infectious disease. Rev Infect Dis., 6(1): 122-128. Okemo PO, Mwatha WE, Chhabra SC & Fabry W 2001. The kill kinetics of Azadirachtaindica a joss (Meliaceae) extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Afr. J. Sci. Technol., 2: 113-118. Okigbo RN & Omodamiro OD 2007. Antimicrobial effect of leaf extracts of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) on some human pathogens. J. Herbs Spices Med. Plant, 12(1-2): 117-127. Parida MM, Upadhyay C, Pandya G & Jana AM 2002. Inhibitory potential of neem (Azadirachtaindica) leaves on dengue virus type-2 replication; 79(2): 273-278. Saradhajyothi Koona & Subbarao Budida 2011. Antimicrobial potential of the extracts of the leave of Azadirachtaindica, Linn. National Scientific Biology, 3(1): 65-69. Schlegal HG 1995. General Microbiology, Cambridge University Press (Publishers), Cambridge, pp. 311-317. Shafiel Y, Razavilar V & Javadi A 2011. Thermal Death Time of Staphylococcus aureus (PTCC=29213) and Staphylococcus Epidermidis (PTCC=1435) in Distilled Water (PDF). Australian J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 5(11): 1551-1554. Sharma D, Lavania AA & Sharma A 2009. In vitro comparative screening of antibacterial and antifungal activities of some common plants and weeds extracts. Asian J Exp Sci., 23: 169-172. Shravan Kumar, Mankala & Kannappan Nagappan 2011. In vivo antidiabetic evaluation of Neem leaf extract in alloxan induced rats. J. Appl. Pharmac. Sci., 7: 100-105. Sing A, Tuschak C & Hoermansdorfer S 2008. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a family and its pet cat. N. Engl. J Med., 358(11). Sonia Bajaj & Srinivasan BP 1999. Investigation into the Anti diabetic activity of Azadirachtaindica. Indian J. Pharmacology, 31: 138-141. Sofowora EA 1992. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. John Wiley and Sons Limited: Chichester, 198. Sofowora A 1993. Recent trends in research into african medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacology, 38: 209-214. Srivastava A, Shukla & Kumar YN 2000. Recent development in plant derived antimicrobial constituents. A review. J. Medicinal Aromatic Plants Sci., 20: 717-72. Trease GE & Evans WC 2002. Pharmacognosy 15th Edition Bailliere Tindall Ltd. London. Tona L, Cimanga RK, Mesia K, Musuamba CT, DeBruyne T, Apers S, Hernans N, Van Miert S, Pieters L, Totte J & Vlietinck AJ 2004. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the democratic republic of Congo. J. Ethnopharmacol., 93(1): 27-32. Wuyep Ponchang Apollos, Hannatu Dawa Musa, Grace Chiemeka Ezemokwe, Davou Dung Nyam & Michael Davou SilaGyang 2017. Phytochemicals from Ageratum conyzoides L. extracts and their antifungal activity against virulent Aspergillus spp. J. Academia & Industrial Res. (JAIR), 6(3): 32-38.