keywords: Biodiesel, catalyst, characterization, egg shell, waste cooking oil
This study was aimed at investigating the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO) using local catalyst developed from chicken egg shell. Egg shells were washed, pulverized and calcined at 700, 800 and 900°C for a time period of 4 h for the preparation of renewable catalyst. Then the calcined sample was refluxed in water at 60OC for 4 h and the solid particle was filtered and dried in hot air oven at 110oC for 5 h. The calcined eggshell catalyst was characterized using XRF, XRD, FTIR, SEM and surface analyzer. The WCO was first filtered to remove all solid particles before transesterification. Transesterification reaction was performed for the conversion of WCO to biodiesel using the developed catalyst. The effect of calcination temperature, deep eutectic solvent (DES) loading and catalysts loading on biodiesel yield were also investigated. XRF revealed CaO as the major constituent (90.86%) of catalyst. This was further confirmed by XRD and FTIR analyses. The maximum biodiesel yield was obtained at a DES loading of 12 g-wt%, catalyst loading of 14 g-wt% and calcination temperature of 900°C . The biodiesel produced was characterized as being composed mainly of saturated myristic acid (31.52 %), lauric acid (18.12%), stearic acid (16.07%) and margaric acid (12.43%) with minor unsaturated components such as oleic acid.
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