keywords: Human Parainfluenza virus, children, antiviral, Nigeria
Respiratory infection is an important public health problem owing to their high incidence and ease of spread in the community and they impact significantly on health worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the sero-prevalence rate of HPIVs 1, 2 and 3 IgG antibodies and investigate certain risk factors for acquisition of infection in children between the ages of 1 – 10 years presenting with various forms of respiratory tract infections in Ilorin, Nigeria. 200 children were enrolled into the study at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. Blood testing for anti HPIVs IgG was done using the commercial ELISA Diagnostic kit by R-Biopharm AG, 62927 Darmstadt Germany. A prevalence rate of 72.5% (140/200) was recorded among the tested children. Relevant demographic data and risk factors were. Age, educational level, day care attendance, residential location, presence family member with respiratory tract infection and presence of catarrh were significantly associated with the infection (p<0.05). Observation from the study showed a high level of exposure to HPIVs in infancy and early childhood among children from a representative population in major central Nigerian City. This indicates the importance of HPIVs as an agent of respiratory tract infection in children. Further studies into quantifying the antibody and distribution of subtypes are being advocated for. Also, as vaccines and drugs against HPIVs are not available in the country as of present, preventive measures should be encouraged and strictly adhered to in the control of the infection.
Akinloye OM, Ronkko E, Savolainen-Kopra C, Ziegler T, Iwalokun BA, Agboola MA, Oluwadun A, Roivainen M, Adu FD & Hovi T 2011. Specific viruses detected in Nigerian children in association with acute respiratory disease. J. Tropical Medicine, 10: 1155. Allander T, Jartti T & Gupta S 2007. Human bocavirus and acute wheezing in children. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 44: 904–10. Araoye MO 2003. Sample size determination. Research Methodology with Statistics for Health and Social Sciences, pp. 118-121. Bonire FS, Umoh VJ, Ado SA, Ellah EE & Ojeleye OA 2015. A serological survey of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) among children in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria. J. Pharmacy & Bio. Sci., 10(1): 60-65. Brooks GF, Carroll KC, Butel J & Morse S 2007 Medical Microbiology 24th edition (Jawetz, Melnick and Adelberg’s) (Kindle edition) McGraw Hill Publishers, pp. 546-554. Burke CW, Bridges O, Brown S, Rahija R & Russell CJ 2013. Mode of parainfluenza transmission determines the dynamics of primary infection and protection from reinfection. PLoS Pathology, 9(11): e1003786. Calvo C, Garcia-Garcia ML, Ambrona P, Rico M, Pozo F, Molinero D, Perez-Brena P & Casas I 2011. The burden of infections by Parainfluenza virus in hospitalized children in spin. Paediatric Infectious Diseases J, 10: 792-794. Faneye A, Babatunde OM, Adeyinka A & Bernard O 2014. Evaluation of IgG antibodies against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), and associated risk factors for severe respiratory tract infections in pre- school children in North-Central, Nigeria. Afr. J. Infect. Dis., 8(2): 36 – 39 Glezen WP & Denny FW 1997. Parainfluenza Viruses In: Evans A, Kaslow R, eds. Viral Infections in Humans: Epidemiology and Control. 4th ed. New York: Plenum, pp. 551-67. Hall CB 2001. Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenzae virus. New England J. Medicine, 344: 1917-1928. Hayden FG 2006. Respiratory viral threats. Current Opinion on Infectious Diseases, 19: 169–78. Laurichesse H, Dedman D & Watson JM 1999. Epidemiological features of Parainfluenza virus infections: Laboratory surveillance in England and Wales, 1975-1997. Eur. J. Epidemiol., 15(5): 475-84. Okamoto M, Sugawara K, Takashita E, Muraki Y & Hongo S 2010. Longitudinal course of human metapneumovirus antibody titers and reinfection in healthy adults. J. Medical Virology, 82: 2092–2096. Ray CG 2004. Influenza, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Adenovirus and other Respiratory Viruses. In: Keneth, J.R and Ray, C.G. Sherris Medical Microbiology: An Introduction to infectious diseases, Fourth edition, McGrawHill Company, pp. 495-512. Rudan I, Boschi-Pinto C, Biloglav Z, Mulholland K & Campbell H 2008. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia. Bull World Health Organization, 86: 408–16. Rudan I, Lawn J & Cousens S 2005. Gaps in policy-relevant information on burden of disease in children: a systematic review. Lancet; 365:2031–40. Sale J, Ahmad AA, Idris HW, Aliyu AM & Rogo LD 2010. Seroprevalence of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 2 Infection among Children (1-5 years) in Zaria, Kaduna State. Bayero Journal of Applied Sciences; 3(1):6-9. Schomacker H, Schaap-Nutt A & Collins PL 2012. Pathogenesis of acute respiratory illness caused by human parainfluenza virus. Current Opinion Virology, 2(3): 294-299. Sommer C, Resh B & Simoes EAF 2011. Risk factors for severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus lower respiratory tract infection. The Open Microb. J. 5(2-M4): 144-154. Ukwaja KN, Olufemi OA 2010. Home management of acute respiratory infections in a Nigerian district. Afr. J. Respiratory Medicine, 1: 18-22. Weinberg GA, Hall CB, Iwane MK, Poehling, KA, Edwards KM & Griffin MR 2009. Parainfluenza virus infection of young children: estimates of the population-based burden of hospitalization. Journal of Pediatrics, 154(5): 694-699.