keywords: Antibiogram, Klebsiella pneumonia, Leaf extract, Proteus mirabilis, Salvia officinalis
Salvia officinalis is a culinary herb of 60-70 cm tall and petiole leaf of 6.0 cm long that belong to the Lamiaceae family and widely cultivated around the world, but a native in the Mediterranean region. This study aimed at the comparison and antibiogram of Salvia officinalis leaf extract against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The reference strains of Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis was obtained from NVRI Vom, Plateau state. Fresh leaves of Salvia officinalis were harvested pulverized and air dried. Both fresh and dried leaves were used and extracted using ethanol, cold and hot water as solvents. Standard microbiological techniques were employed in this study. The antibiogram of Salvia officinalis leaf extracts were determined by agar well diffusion method using 1000 mg/ml, 800 mg/ml, 600 mg/ml, 400 mg/ml and 200 mg/ml concentrations. At high concentration, Klebsiella pneumoniae was shown to be more susceptible to the ethanolic extract of the dry and fresh leaf extract than Proteus mirabilis. The zone of inhibition of the positive control, gentamicin against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis was higher than of both the cold and hot water (dry and fresh) extract but no significantly difference (P<0.05) with the ethanol (dry and fresh leaf) extract. Both test organisms were more susceptible to the dry leaf extracts of Salvia officinalis than the fresh leaf extracts. Klebsiella pneumoniae was more susceptible to the effect of the leaf extract than Proteus mirabilis with gradual increase in concentrations from 200mg/ml to 1000mg/ml. The ethanolic dry leaf extract was more effective against test organisms. In this study, Salvia officinalis leaf extract in high concentrations especially the ethanol extract were shown to be good alternative antibiotics against the test organisms. Therefore the leaf extract of Salvia officinalis can be effective against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis infections.